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Activity title

Assessment/analysis support to facilitate the introduction of NLW by addressing line of development obstacles

Activity Reference



System Analysis and Studies

Security Classification



Awaiting Publication

Activity type


Start date


End date



Acquisition, AntiTerrorismCounterTerroris, Capability Development, Counterinsurgency, Counterpiracy, Deployment, Employment, etc, Exercises, Lessons Learned, Materiel and NonMateriel Solutions, NonLethal Weapons, Operations Peace Support Operations, Requirements, Suitability, Tests, Wargames


NATO and its member nations have seen increasing development and employment of NLW over the past decade, driven by operational experience. NLW have been used in peace support operations in Bosnia and Kosovo, counterpiracy off the coast of Africa, and in counterinsurgency in Afghanistan, where a report for ISAF recommended a “deep dive” to identify non-lethal capabilities and options, as initial data showed enhanced NLW warning effectiveness of 80-90%. This study would build on the history of important and successful work accomplished under the SAS Panel’s auspices, and it would directly address key issues raised by SAS-094.


Facilitate the introduction of NLW by addressing obstacles to development, acquisition, deployment, and employment by NATO and its member nations.


The study will provide analytical and operational experimentation support (including assessment support for wargames, tests, and/or exercises) to address obstacles confronting NLW development, acquisition, deployment, and employment such as employability, suitability (particularly total warfighter burden), and legal/acceptability, with the goal being to identify potential solutions to obstacles. Other topics that could also be integrated include: - Analysis of countermeasures to NLW (and escalation of force implications) - Deployment/employment at the tactical level addressing trade-offs, burdens (physical and mental), trust/confidence in the system and its effects, and how to integrate NLW (rheostatic vs. underslung vs. separate) with a fresh look at measures of effectiveness - Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) developing a methodology for how to adapt existing TTPs, going deep with wargame and field testing (including the development of appropriate analytical and assessment methods) of one or several TTPs, and identifying implications (NATO SOF HQ expressed interest in doctrine writ large as a great way to have enduring impact). - Highlighting where, how, and to what extent NLW have made a difference - Developing recommendations for how to compose the NLW toolbox, including cost-benefit and force mix considerations

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