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Injury assessment methods for vehicle occupants in blast-related events

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Human Factors and Medicine

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IED, Injury criteria, Occupant loading, Protectionconcepts, Test method, Test procedure


Protection of the occupants against both Anti-Vehicular (AV) and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) threats is a main aspect in vehicle design and in NATO Standards. Currently, the STANAG 4569 addresses the ballistic and mine protection levels for the qualification of vehicles, and is working on updates that include the IED threat. Injury assessment criteria and tolerance levels are included based on the effort of HFM-090/TG-25 (2001-2004), of HFM148/ RTG (2006-2009) and HFM 198/ RTG (2010-2013). Examination of newly available combat and test data, and the ability to accurately predict injuries observed in combat, are critical in determining the efficacy of current and projected vehicle protection technologies. Collating the injury and live-fire data that are being produced internationally, and sharing the knowledge and experience from the participating nations are essential in order to improve our mitigation efforts and agree on globally accepted standardization of acceptance criteria for protective technologies. Given the wide mobilisation and investment in blast injury research from many NATO members it is appropriate for an HFM group to collate and analyse the information independently in order to inform STANAG 4569 as required.


The objective is to define appropriate injury criteria and injury assessment methods for mounted warfighters based on contemporary battlefield, live-fire and laboratory data in order to inform STANAG 4569 and the wider NATO community.


• Examination of existing and emerging data on occupant response and injury criteria from biomechanics research with military focus; • Understanding the effects of human body posture and protective equipment on injury severity and to evaluate the applicability of current injury criteria; • Investigation and/or development of proper (survival) injury criteria for ‘overmatch’ loading scenarios; • Examination of ATD and human models for applicability of use in test planning.

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