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Activity title

Optimization of Investment in Simulation-Based Military Training

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System Analysis and Studies

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Competency, Effectiveness, Investment, Live, Operational Readiness, Optimization, Simulationbased Training, Virtual and Constructive Training


While all training activity may be considered a ”simulation” of actual warfare, provided across a blend of Live (real people operating real equipment in a real environment with simulated effects), Virtual (real people operating simulated equipment in a simulated environment with simulated effects.) and Constructive (real people directing simulated personnel in a simulated environment with simulated equipment and effects) - LVC - means, the use of simulation-based training (defined here as primarily virtual and constructive training) is often promoted as a potentially less costly alternative to live training and is a key enabler to the development of military readiness. However, simulation-based training is still costly and is associated with technical challenges. Investment decisions should be made upon the life cycle cost of training and the return on such investments in training effectiveness — the training aspect of military readiness: to what extent simulation-based training may effectively prepare individuals, teams, and units for military operations. This proposed research task group will explore these topics and other issues related to decision-making and optimizing investment in simulation-based training.


The study would bring together defence analysts across disciplines to develop a roadmap for optimizing investment in simulation-based training. Specifically, the task group will identify deficiencies, gaps, challenges, and best practices among NATO nations related to: • Methods used to identify the training aspect of military readiness across individual, team, and collective levels (e.g. applying competency based education and training); • Methods used to determine an optimal blend of live, virtual, and constructive training to achieve the training aspect of military readiness; • Methods used to measure training effectiveness; and • Models of training investment-effectiveness. It may be necessary to seek cooperation with the MSG and HFM Panels or experts.


- Determination of competencies that cut across the individual, team, and collective levels in dynamic operational environments - Estimation of simulation-based training costs - Metrics and measures of simulation-based training effectiveness - Optimization of the use of live, virtual and constructive training. - Models on investment-effectiveness of simulation-based training

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