|Top Ten Cyber Effects for Campaign and Mission Simulations|
|NATO Modelling and Simulation Group|
Cyber Effects simulation, Distributed Simulation, Interoperability, LVC, Mission Training
This technical activity follows on from the work of MSG-117 and the MSG-151/IST-156 workshop that reported in 2015 and 2017 respectively.
NATO has asserted that cyber defence is part of NATO’s core task of collective defence, and as well as the traditional protection of communications there is a stated aim to ‘to integrate cyber defence elements and considerations into the entire range of Alliance exercises’.
The report published by MSG-117 gave an informed high-level overview of how M&S might be used to support NATO Cyber Defence efforts. One of the most significant areas identified as needing additional work to ensure the potential of M&S to support this domain is fully exploited was the representation of the impact of cyber in training exercises for military personnel other than cyber operators.
There is currently little representation of cyber in campaign and mission level exercises, what there is being mainly limited to degrading or switching off C2. Whilst this can be a quick and effective way of creating a basic representation of the impact on a mission of a cyberattack, it does not cover the full range of potential impacts. A better understanding is needed of effects that should be represented.
One of the recommendations of the MSG-151/IST-156 Workshop in July 2017 was to form an exploratory team to produce a “top ten” list of Cyber effects/attacks/countermeasures and counter effects that are most worth modelling. This is expected to be achievable in a year and would be exploitable across a range of follow-on activities.
The key objectives and expected achievements are:
- Development of a “top ten” list of Cyber effects of attacks/countermeasures and counter effects that are most relevant for a mission training environment. Categorising of these effects at engineering, mission and campaign level. The study will address the required fidelity levels of the simulated effects.
- Reference examples and/or available implementations will be collected and studied. The team will evaluate and rank the credibility and likelihood of the effects in the “top ten” list. Insight will be gained on how simulation of the attacks/effects can support NATO Cyber Defence efforts.
- The exploratory team will obtain insights from invited subject matter experts on the current status of research and best practice on how to achieve/implement effective representations in mission rehearsal and training. This could also start to consider possible requirements for a NATO Cyber HLA FOM Module.
The collected and reviewed information will be used to develop recommendations about how best to address Cyber Defence challenges, and to inform requirements for potential follow-on work to take forward the recommendations from MSG-117 and MSG-151/IST-156.
The ST will prepare a technical evaluation report, recommending work for future activities, and possibly informing the requirements for a NATO Cyber HLA FOM.
The ST will address the following topics:
1. Evaluate and rank a “top ten” list of cyber effects of attacks/countermeasures and countereffects that are most worth modelling. The ranking must consider credibility, likelihood and impact.
2. Study which elements of the effects of attacks/countermeasures and -effects are needed in training of processes and procedures for dealing with the cyberattacks
o how to create effective and credible representations and GUI elements for simulation in campaign and mission level exercises of the effects and countermeasures.
o current status of research and best practice on how to achieve/implement effective representations in mission rehearsal and training.
4. In conjunction with Topic 3, consider possible requirements for a NATO Cyber HLA FOM module for simulating cyber effects.