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Definition
  
Further Information
  
  
The decision to use a model, simulation, and the associated data for a specific purpose.
GM-VV: SISO-GUIDE-001.1-2012 on “Generic Methodology for Verification and Validation (GM-VV) to Support Acceptance of Models, Simulations, and Data”
In the United States the term “accreditation” is preferred while not exactly synonymous (see the following definition). In other communities “certification” is the process of providing a written statement that a (M&S) system is acceptable for operational use.
AB
  
The official certification that a model, simulation, or federation of models and simulations and its associated data are acceptable for use for a specific purpose
US DoD
see also : Acceptance
AB
  
The degree to which a parameter or variable, or set of parameters or variables, within a model or simulation conforms exactly to reality or to some chosen standard or referent.
AB
  
A model of the processes that make up the functional activity showing inputs, outputs, controls, and mechanisms through which the processes of the functional activity are (or will be) conducted.
MSG-120
AB
  
A computer system capable of autonomous action - of deciding for itself what it needs to do to satisfy its design objectives, and capable of interacting with other agents.
MSG-120
AB
  
A group of entities considered as a single unit.
MSG-120
The substitution of the word "unit" is used to avoid phrases like "aggregate aggregate”.
AB
  
The ability to group entities while preserving the salient effects of entity behaviour and interaction while grouped.
MSG-120
AB
  
AFAP
A constructive simulation system where there is no explicit relationship between wall clock time and the rate of time advancements.
MSG-120
See also non-real time simulation
AB
  
A type of virtual reality in which synthetic stimuli are registered with and superimposed on real world objects; often used to make information otherwise imperceptible to human senses perceptible.
MSG-120
AB
  
A virtual object used to represent a participant or physical object in a simulation; the (typically visual) representation may take any form.
MSG-120
AB
  
BOM
A single aspect of federation interplay, which can be used as a building block of Federation Object Models (FOMs) and Simulation Object Models (SOMs).
Australian Defence Simulation Glossary
AB
  
Refers to both the physical environment in which the simulated warfare will take place, and the forces that will conduct the simulated warfare.
Australian Defence Simulation Glossary
See also Synthetic Environment and Simuland
AB
  
A simulation entity that corresponds to actual equipment, supplies, and personnel, which typically is seen or sensed on a real operational environment.
Australian Defence Simulation Glossary
AB
  
Modelling of representative entity behaviours in which individual or group behaviours are derived from the physical, psychological or social characteristics of the sentient and non-sentient systems represented.
Australian Defence Simulation Glossary
AB
  
A simulator or simulation system with an active feedback loop.
Australian Defence Simulation Glossary
CD
  
Any structural activity that is undertaken to represent higher level strategic guidance, doctrine operational concepts, concepts of operation and combat scenarios in terms of varying degrees of abstraction and reality.
NATO MSG MS Glossary and Acronym List 1.2
CD
  
Services, applications and data which are, or potentially can be, used (and reused) by more than one simulation system/user (client) and for which benefits can be realised by making them discoverable and available.
Australian Defence Simulation Glossary
CD
  
MSG-120
A highly composable system provides recombinant components that can be selected and assembled in various combinations to satisfy specific user requirements. To take full profit from this methodology, there is a need to get a framework providing simulations services and modular components compliant to the framework and replaceable.
CD
  
CGF
A generic term used to describe the computer representation of forces in simulations which attempt to model human behaviour sufficiently so that forces will take some actions automatically, without requiring human-in-the-loop interaction.
Australian Defence Simulation Glossary, modified for NATO use.
1. CGF’s may be fully autonomous, requiring no human direction, or semi-autonomous, requiring some direction by a human controller (see SAF definition).2. CGF’s represent friendly, opposing, and neutral battlespace entities not portrayed by manned simulators.
CD
  
CM
A statement of the content and internal representations that are the user's and developer's combined concept of the model.
US DoD Glossary modified for NATO use.
It includes logic and algorithms and explicitly recognises assumptions and limitations.
CD
  
A simulation (system) involving simulated control entities (including agents) operating simulated systems.
Australian Defence Simulation Glossary
Real people make inputs to such simulations, but are not directly involved in determining the outcomes.
CD
  
A mathematical or computational model whose output variables change in a continuous manner.
IEEE GLOSSARY
CD
  
A system that produces feel forces, on manned simulators controls, which accurately reflect those felt by the operator in real world conditions.
US DoD Glossary
CD
  
The relevance that the user sees in the model, and the confidence that the user has that the model or simulation can serve its purpose.
NATO MSG MS Glossary and Acronym List 1.2
The appropriateness of the model plus the correctness of the model equals the credibility.
CD
  
A Simulation that is terminated by the occurrence of a certain event.
NATO MSG MS Glossary and Acronym List 1.2
See also Event
CD
  
DEMDatamodel
Formally defined data model for the interchange of data between networked simulations used to create and operate a distributed, time and space coherent synthetic environment.
MSG-120
CD
  
A device which accepts data outputs from a (distributed) simulation system or federation, and stores them (time stamped) for later usage such as analysis or replay in the same time sequence as the data was originally received. 
MSG-120
CD
  
A simulation system that does not contain any probabilistic (or random) components.
MSG-120
Contrast with probabilistic simulation
CD
  
The action to decompose an aggregated entity into multiple entities representing its components.
US DoD Glossary
CD
  
A simulation that uses a discrete model where the dependent variables (i.e. state indicators) change discretely at points in time referred to as events.
MSG-120
CD
  
A simulation system built on components linked to a network.
MSG-120
Components may be:Constructive simulation applications (software),Virtual simulators (manned),  Live simulations,General purpose tools (visualization systems, control devices, data loggers, etc.).Operators/users may also contribute to the system output in providing direct input and/or commands during its exploitation.
CD
  
A simulation that is built into, or added into, operational systems to enhance capability.
Australian Defence Simulation Glossary
Modern battlespace systems typically include embedded simulation to aid training outcomes.
EF
  
Any component in a system that requires explicit representation in a model or simulation system.
Australian Defence Simulation Glossary
Examples of entities: platforms (ship, submarine, aircraft), munitions (missile, torpedo), human beings, etc. ; any other components that interact within the simulation.
EF
  
The texture or detail of the natural and human-built domain that is terrain relief, weather, day/night, terrain cultural features; roads, buildings, and the external objects, conditions, and processes that influence the behaviour of a system.
Australian Defence Simulation Glossary
EF
  
A specific change of state of an entity portrayed in a simulation.
MSG-120
A specific event is characterized by the concerned entity and its time stamp.
EF
  
Fair fight is when two or more simulation systems that are part of a distributed simulation environment interoperate in a way that does not lead to a systematic advantage or disadvantage for one of the systems.
”How to ensure fair fight in LVC Simulations” – MSG-087 Siegfried etc
EF
  
An element of the synthetic environment that exists but does not actively participate in interactions.
MSG-120
EF
  
A named component of a distributed simulation system.
MSG-120
In DSEEP a federate is called a “member” of simulation environment.
EF
  
A named set of interacting federates, a common Federation Object Model (FOM) and supporting Runtime Infrastructure (RTI) that are used as a whole to achieve some specific objective.
MSG-120
In DSEEP a federation is called a “simulation environment”.
EF
  
FOM
A High Level Architecture (HLA) specification that defines the information exchanged at runtime to achieve a given set of federation objectives.
MSG-120
EF
  
The degree to which the representation within a model or simulation is similar to a real-world object, feature, or condition in a measurable or perceived manner.
MSG-120
EF
  
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GH
  
HwIL
Simulation systems  that employ one or more pieces of real equipment (including computer hardware) within the simulation/simulator system.
MSG-120
GH
  
HLA
A family of related standards that together describe the functional elements, interfaces, and design rules for a unified approach and common architecture to constructing interoperable simulation systems.
MSG-120
STANAG 4603 (IEEE 1516-2010)
GH
  
HuIL
A simulation system that employ one or more human operators in direct control of the simulation or simulator or in some key support function.
MSG-120
GH
  
A simulation system comprising more than one type of technology
MSG-120
For example a simulation system using both analogue and digital components See also “Hardware in the Loop.”
GH
  
Immersion into a simulation system is a perception of being physically present in a non-physical world.
MSG-120
See “Synthetic Environment”
IJ
  
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IJ
  
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KL
  
LIS
A simulation involving real people operating instrumented weapon systems.
Australian Defence Simulation Glossary
Mainly used on training, test, or exercise ranges.
KL
  
Simulation involving real people operating real systems.
MSG-120
KL
  
LVC
A broadly used taxonomy describing a mixture of live, virtual, and constructive simulation.
MSG-120
See specific definitions for “Live”, “Virtual” and “Constructive” Simulation.
KL
  
Qualify a value of the simulated time.
MSG-120
Term mainly used in the constructive simulation domain, for non-real time distributed simulation systems See also: “Simulated Time” and HLA standard specification
KL
  
A condition that exists when simulation entities are not involved in very close interaction that happen only from time to time.
MSG-120
Two tanks moving over terrain five miles apart from each other are an example of loosely coupled entities.
KL
  
A model of a model.
MSG-120
Abstractions of the modelling and simulation (M&S) being developed that use functional decomposition to show relationships, paths of data and algorithms, ordering, and interactions between model components and subcomponents.
MN
  
A physical, mathematical or otherwise logical representation of a system, entity, phenomenon, or process.
MSG-120
MN
  
M&S
A discipline that comprises of the development and/or use of models and simulation(s) (systems).
MSG-120
This expression is sometimes shorten in “Simulation”
MN
  
A way to exploit probabilistic simulation systems in running different replica of the same situation with different random numbers to guarantee the correctness of statistical results.
MSG-120
See also: “Probabilistic Simulation System” and “Replica” definitions
MN
  
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MN
  
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OP
  
A simulation application running on multiple computers or processors in a coordinated mode
MSG-120
OP
  
Is accomplished by presenting a virtual world to users based on their location and orientation and providing synthetic stimuli to one or more of their senses in response to their position and actions.
MSG-120
See “Immersion”
OP
  
Stochastic Simulation System
A constructive simulation system in which the final results are influenced  by using random variables to represent uncertainty and/or in which a given input will produce an output according to some statistical distribution.
MSG-120
Contrast with: “Deterministic simulation system” See also: “Monte-Carlo Method”
OP
  
PDU
Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) terminology for a unit of data that is passed on a network between Simulation applications.
MSG-120
OP
  
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QR
  
Simulation where the simulated time advances at the same rate as actual time;
MSG-120
For example, running the simulation system for one second results in the simulated time advancing by one second; or manned simulators are generally real-time simulation systems. Contrast with non-real time simulation.
QR
  
The perceived view of a part of the world to be simulated.
MSG-120
In the M&S domain, the real world may be either an actual or a future system, performed in real situations as well as fictional. See also “Simuland”.
QR
  
A codified body of knowledge about a thing being simulated
MSG-073
QR
  
Run of Simulation
A specific performance of the simulation where all data related to scenario and models are fixed while statistical input is randomized.
MSG-120
Term used when exploiting a stochastic constructive simulation system under the Monte-Carlo method.
QR
  
Knowledge about the real world (raw materials) used to develop a model or simulation
MSG-120
See also “Referent”
QR
  
The degree of detail used to represent aspects of the real world within a model or a simulation system.
MSG-120
QR
  
Hardware or software components, algorithms, databases, frameworks, toolkits, etc. used to build a model or a simulation system.
NATO M&S Master Plan (AC/323 (SGMS)D/2, version 1.0, 7 Aug 98
End-products (models and simulation systems) may also be named “M&S resources”
QR
  
The use of M&S resources beyond their initial purpose.
MSG-120
Re-use can occur within an organization or in different organizations, or in different application areas.”
QR
  
The ability of a simulation system to handle a growing or reducing amount of work in a capable manner or its ability to be enlarged or reduced to accommodate that change and to maintain time and spatial consistency as the number of entities and accompanying interactions varies.
MSG-120
For example the ability to portray different numbers (from small to large) of entities and interactions.
ST
  
A computer code used in event-driven simulation managing the main list of events. Events are sorted according to increasing time-stamp and additional information is registered such as the event-type and concerned entities.
MSG-120
See “Event Driven Simulation”
ST
  
A specific description of the situation and course of action at an initial or specific moment in time for each element of the situation.
MSDL modified for NATO use.
ST
  
SAF
An alternative  computer generated force (CGF) that allows some limited operator control
MSG-120
For example OneSAF
ST
  
A system/part of the real world being represented by a simulation system
SISO-REF-002-1999
ST
  
The imitation of the operation of a real world system or process over time.
Wikipedia
This term relates to the general activity in M&S. In some cases the term “Simulation” is used to name simulation systems when the context allows it  Can also be described as the use of model(s) over time.
ST
  
A simulation's internal representation of time; it may advance faster, slower, or at the same pace as real time.
MSG-120
See also “Logical Time”
ST
  
M&S system
A combination of interacting elements/components organized to provide a representation of the Simuland for an intended use.
MSG-120
Examples of simulation components are hardware, software, models, databases, human operators and procedures.
ST
  
A device, computer program or system that performs simulation to replace a real-world system or apparatus.
MSG 120
This term can very often be used for describing manned devices, also called “virtual simulation systems”.
ST
  
A simulation system that can be exploited without any interoperation with any other simulation system or real system such as a C2I system.
MSG-120
ST
  
A representation of the real world, within which any combination of players may interact.
MSG 120
The 'players' may be computer models, simulations, people or instrumented real equipments
ST
  
The representation in a synthetic environment of the physical world within which all models exist and interact (i.e. climate, weather, terrain, oceans, space, etc.).
MSG 120
It includes both data and models representing the elements of the environment, their effects on systems, and models of the impact of systems on environmental variables (e.g. contrails, dust clouds from moving vehicles).
ST
  
TDS
A collection of related layers of geospatial data, consisting primarily of terrain elevation data, object geometry, imagery for features and terrain, and feature data and attributes (often in vector format).
UK MoD
ST
  
TENA
A distributed simulation architecture described as an object-oriented data interchange model, a middleware, dedicated libraries to enable interoperability among range systems, facilities, simulations, C4ISR systems in a quick, cost-efficient manner.
MSG 120
Developed by the US Army.
ST
  
A condition that exists when simulation entities are involved in very close interaction such that every action of an entity must be immediately accounted for by the other entities.
ST
  
A variable whose value represents simulated time or real time.
see also simulated time or logical time
ST
  
A discrete simulation of continuous events in which the simulated time advances by intervals chosen independent of the simulated events.
MSG-120
see also “simulated time” or “logical time”
ST
  
Used to indicate the time at which data was updated.
MSG-120
ST
  
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UV
  
The process of determining the degree to which a model or simulation and its associated data is an accurate representation of the real-world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model or simulation.
MSG-120
UV
  
The process of determining that a model or simulation implementation and its associated data accurately represent the developer’s conceptual description and specifications.
MSG-120
UV
  
VV&A
The combined process of performing verification, validation and accreditation.
MSG-120
UV
  
Simulation involving real people operating simulated systems
MSG-120
Very often used to describe a manned simulator. See also “constructive simulation” and”live simulation”.
UV
  
The human perception of the passage of time from the start to the completion of a task.
MSG-120
Also known as a measure of the real time that elapses from start to end, including time that passes due to programmed (artificial) delays or waiting for resources to become available. In other words, it is the difference between the time at which a task finishes and the time at which the task started. See also “real time”.
WX
  
A simulation in which participants seek to achieve a specified objective given pre-established resources and constraints.
MSG-120
Not all war games are supported by constructive or virtual simulation systems. Note: the process is called wargaming.
WX
  
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WX
  
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YZ
  
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YZ