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Notes

Non-Equilibrium Gas Dynamics – From Physical Models to Hypersonic Flights

RTO-EN-AVT-162

In-depth knowledge of gas dynamics at hypersonic speeds is required to define the environment and requirements for the design and safe operation of space vehicles, planetary probes, and rockets. Development of physical models and numerical methods has enabled major advancements in our approach to the design of vehicles, and has minimized the needs for extensive flight tests. However, there remain many challenges in our ability to model the hypersonic regime. Transport of mass, momentum, and energy in hypersonic flows in thermo-chemical non-equilibrium requires further development of the physical models and reliable experimental data to guide and validate these models. The complexity of the physics in the hypersonic regime presents unique challenges for measurement techniques and flight tests. The objectives of the lecture notes were to review the up-to-date physical models describing complex high-enthalpy and non-equilibrium effects, measurement techniques for flight test and ground-based experiments, as well as numerical simulation strategies specific to the hypersonic regime, focusing, in particular, on the accurate prediction of the thermal loads on atmospheric entry bodies. The first part of the notes addresses theoretical issues of irreversible thermodynamics and kinetic theory of plasmas and reactive molecular gases, including a note devoted to the specific treatment of electronic excited states. Dissociation cross sections and reaction rate coefficients for nitrogen computed from first principles are then presented, as well as two reviews on the electron impact excitation and ionization in air and carbon dioxide mixtures. Subsequent lecture notes deal with shock-tube and shock tunnel design and experiments, with particular emphasis on optical diagnostics. Radiation databases and modeling, as well as collisional radiative models are also presented for both shock-tube experiments and simulations of Earth and Mars atmospheric entries. A new approach to risk-based analysis and testing deals with quantification of uncertainty in flow simulations using probabilistic methods. The frontiers of aerothermo-dynamics are then described, giving directions of future research. Finally, the lecture notes are devoted to advanced numerical methods for hypersonic flows, covering both computational fluid dynamics and direct simulation Monte-Carlo methods.

Published9/16/2009
STOAuthorExternalMultiple
STOPublicationTypeEducational Notes RDP
Publication_ReferenceRTO-EN-AVT-162
DOI10.14339/RTO-EN-AVT-162
ISBNISBN 978-92-837-0091-3
STOPublisherRTO
AccessOpen Access
STOKeywords

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$EN-AVT-162 Supporting Documents.zip$EN-AVT-162 Supporting DocumentsSupporting Documents9/16/2009Open Access
$EN-AVT-162-COVER.pdf$EN-AVT-162-COVERCover Pages9/16/2009Open Access
$EN-AVT-162-ES.pdf$EN-AVT-162-ESExecutive Summary and Synthèse9/16/2009Open Access
$EN-AVT-162-PC.pdf$EN-AVT-162-PCProgramme Committee9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-01.pdfEN-AVT-162-01Hypersonic-Flow Governing Equations with Electromagnetic Fields9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-02.pdfEN-AVT-162-02Kinetic Theory of Plasmas9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-03.docEN-AVT-162-03Kinetic Theory of Reactive Molecular Gases9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-04.docEN-AVT-162-04Electronically Excited States and Their Role in Affecting Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Thermal Plasmas9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-05.docEN-AVT-162-05Dissociation Cross Sections and Rates for Nitrogen9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-06.docEN-AVT-162-06Electron-Impact Excitation and Ionization in Air9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-07.docEN-AVT-162-07Electronic Excitation in Air and Carbon Dioxide Gas9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-08.pdfEN-AVT-162-08Radiation Database for Earth and Mars Entry9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-09.pdfEN-AVT-162-09Collisional-radiative Modeling in Flow Simulations9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-10.docEN-AVT-162-10Radiation Modeling in Shock-Tubes and Entry Flows9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-11.pdfEN-AVT-162-11Frontiers of Aerothermodynamics9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-12.docEN-AVT-162-12Shock Tubes and Shock Tunnels: Design and Experiments9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-13.docEN-AVT-162-13Shock Tube Experiments for Earth and Mars Entry Conditions9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-14.docEN-AVT-162-14Optical Measurements in Non-Equilibrium Plasmas and Flows9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-15.pdfEN-AVT-162-15Computational FLuid Dynamics for Atmospheric Entry9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-16(1).docEN-AVT-162-16(1)Direct Simulation Monte Carlo for Atmospheric Entry: 1. Theoretical Basis and Physical Models9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-16(2).docEN-AVT-162-16(2)Direct Simulation Monte Carlo for Atmospheric Entry: 2. Code Development and Application Results9/16/2009Open Access
EN-AVT-162-17.pdfEN-AVT-162-17Quantification of Uncertainty in Flow Simulations Using Probabilistic Methods9/16/2009Open Access

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