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MSG-120UU2RTG15/01/201315/01/201601. M&S Terminology 2. Glossaries
Continuing work on the maintenance of the NATO M&S Standards Profile (NMSSP but also known as AMSP-01), and other work in the M&S domain, has revealed that there is a clear lack of coherence and co-ordination in terminology across NATO that hampers work to achieve interoperability. Individual countries have created their own M&S glossaries to describe terminologies but there is no coherence or co-ordination across these extant glossaries with variations on definitions and explanations. With ever closer work between nations, MSG-112 examined the issue which resulted with a recommendation to proceed with the creation of a NATO M&S Glossary of Terms. A co-operative approach is justified by the fact that the aforementioned glossary should be as relevant and pertinent to as many NMSG participating nations as possible. Moreover, the NATO M&S Glossary of Terms will be a NATO Allied Standard (AP type) covered by a STANAG.
Glossary;M&S;
With reference to all available national, international and NATO M&S glossaries published to date and submitted available to NATO STO, create a common M&S Glossary of Terms to be known as AMSP-02.
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IST-131UU1RSM01/09/201431/12/20150The topics will include but not be limited to • Current challenges in CWMD situational awareness • State-of-the-art analytic and visualization techniques for open source data • Data management in the age of advanced analytics • Current and future architec
Combatting Weapons of Mass Destruction (CWMD) is an international military and civilian issue requiring a coordinated international interdisciplinary effort. WMDs are a domestic threat to all NATO nations as well as in theaters of operation. The most effective approach to CWMD is to detect and disrupt threats early in the threat cycle. This requires the development of alternate signatures through the use of new data sources and analytical techniques. Open source represents one of the greatest potentials for new approaches to detecting illicit Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive (CBRNE) activities. Exemplar information types include social media, professional media, shipping and transportation, law enforcement, and financial transactions. However it is often not possible or desirable to co-locate all these data sources. This forces the requirement for new processes and algorithms to analyze data at rest in various locations and return properly prepared results based on a wide range of criteria. This is a complex problem since the quality and completeness of data sources is often unknown. The issue is only compounded when data schemas are not compatible. There are many unresolved research questions in relation to distributed analytics. This specialist meeting is meant to serve as a platform to identify common needs and challenges inherent in the variety of research and development activities being conducted in the NATO community and our partners.
Visual Analytics; CWMD
We are proposing a two-day specialist meeting with 25 to 35 participants. This specialist meeting will bring together experts and practitioners from NATO member military agencies along with industry leaders and academic visionaries to present and discuss the state-of-the-art developments and hard challenges. This meeting will result in a raised awareness of our common efforts with an eye toward developing collaborative opportunities. By the end of the second day we expect to identify candidate exercises using multiple data sources to test current techniques and technologies. 
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IST-SAS-139UU0RWS01/10/201401/12/20151The topics will include but, not be limited to: ARMOUR prototype Cyber defence and security Current challenges in data exploration / exploitation Decision support Evaluation measures and metrics Research framework Hypotheses generation and validation Miss
There are many Research Task Groups (RTGs) under different STO Panels/Group working on different aspects of defence, military and intelligence challenges, e.g. cyber defence, decision support, mission planning, modelling and simulation, visualization and visual analytics etc. Bringing members of the different RTGs together in a workshop will enable them to explore and benefit from each others work and develop collaborations to complement and enhance their respective efforts, as well as facilitating the sharing of data, tasks and tools. Visual analytics / visualisation together modelling and simulation and other forms of analysis tools / techniques are key enabling technologies which provide one of the possible links to bring these groups together.
Cyber Defence; Cyber Security; Decision Support; Information Assurance; Modelling and Simulation; Situation Awareness; Visual Analytics; Visualisation
Visual analytics and visualization, modelling and simulation, and other forms of analysis tools/techniques may provide effective potential solutions to support users in exploring, analysing and understanding vast, complex and dynamic data, and thus support them in undertaking and completing their tasks, e.g. mission planning, situation awareness and decision support in the intelligence, defence and cyber domains. In addition, Canadas ARMOUR prototype may provide a convenient (services-oriented architecture (SOA)) environment to share existing/emerging tools and solutions in the future, and the Information Assurance/Cyber Defence Research Framework may provide a useful guide to organize, coordinate, and communicate the value of those tools and solutions to/among members of interested STO panels and groups. We propose a two to three-day workshop to bring together the members from the different RTGs, such as IST-096, IST-108, IST-110, MSG-117, SAS-102 and SAS-106, from the three different panels, namely IST, MSG and SAS. Participation from HFM and the CMRE is also welcomed. This will provide the means for the RTG members to present, discuss and share their work, problems and challenges in relation to the exploration, exploitation and utilization of massive, complex and dynamic data in their respective tasks and mission domains. The workshop will result in a raised awareness of their common and different problems and efforts, and the development of collaborations. Outcomes will include potential STO joint collaborations, sharing of data, tools and tasks, as well as the generation of new research ideas and RTG TAP proposal(s).
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AVT-235UU2RLS01/03/201301/12/20141Probabilistic analyses are at the core of current UQ approaches, and therefore, the challenges offered, for example by high‐fidelity turbulence flow simulations are multiplied when uncertainty characterization is required. This poses a tremendous burden o
The availability of powerful computational resources and general‐purpose numerical algorithms creates increasing opportunities to attempt flow simulations in complex systems such as hypersonic cruise vehicles. How accurate are the resulting predictions? Are the mathematical and physical models correct? Do we have sufficient information to define relevant operating conditions? In general, how can we establish “error bars” on the results? At the interface between physics, mathematics, probability and optimization, and although quite mature in the experimental community, Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) efforts are in their infancy in computational science. The 2007 AVT-147 Symposium on “Computational Uncertainty in Military Vehicle Design” was previously designed to evaluate current methods of assessing simulation uncertainty, to identify future research and development needs associated with these methods, and to present examples of how these needs are being addressed and how the methods are being applied. The 2011 AVT-193 RTO-VKI LS on theory, applications and numerical tools for Uncertainty Quantification was the opportunity to introduce UQ to the larger computational fluid dynamics community and focused in particular on the difficulties stemming from the strong non‐linearity and multiscale nature of flow dynamics.
Computational Fluid Dynamics; Uncertainty Quantification; Stochastic propagation methods; Data assimilation; Validation and Verification; Calibration; Robust design and optimization; Model-form uncertainties 
Uncertainty Quantification aims at developing rigorous methods to characterize the impact of “limited knowledge” on quantities of interest. After demonstrating the importance of uncertainty quantification for improving the predictive capabilities for overarching applications, the present course will review the new trends in uncertainty quantification in computational fluid dynamics focusing on model-form uncertainties, data assimilation, robust design and optimization.
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SAS-111UU0RTG01/01/201501/01/20181The study should consider the following initial assumptions in the DOTMLPF-I framework. In doing so to investigate the following questions: - What is the current state of data collection and management for analysis in NATO operations? - How does NATO’s cu
Commanders in NATO operations routinely rely on analytic support to enhance their decision making processes. Reliable and accessible data is an essential component of this analytical work. However, analysts frequently struggle to find the necessary data, partly because the data has not yet been collected and partly because existing data has not been well managed. The digitalization of the battlefield implies a proliferation of real-time machine data (i.e. blue force tracker, RFID) that will increase the volume, velocity, and variety of data available for analysis. This massive increase in collected data offers a tremendous opportunity for NATO analysts to provide more timely and extensive advice to commanders. However, with more data, effective data management will become an even bigger challenge. Therefore, the question facing NATO today is how to prepare its deployed headquarters to effectively collect and manage an increased amount of data for timely use in analysis support to operations. The private sector is rapidly recognizing the challenges and potential benefits associated with analytics of “big data” and has already begun adapting its working practices to capitalize on these benefits for business success. NATO also needs to consider how it will adapt its collection and management of data to the future information environment. In order to adapt to this challenge, like the private sector, NATO will need to consider not just new procedures or databases, but also how to implement systemic changes across its data related Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership, Personnel, Facilities and Interoperability. Previous SAS activities addressing data collection concerning IFOR and SFOR and were completed in 1998 (cp. SAS 003). Since then significant technological advances have greatly increased the ability to process and store larger volumes of data. Hence we recommend a Task Group of 2 years with the clarified title of: “Collection and Management of Data for Analysis Support to Operations”. 
Data collection procedures; data collection plans; data collection concepts; data management; operational analysis; operational assessment 
To suggest how NATO deployed headquarters could enhance their ability (DOTMLPF-I) to collect and manage the data required for analytical support to NATO operations, including the requirement for “big data” analytics. 
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AVT-ET-149NU2ET01/10/201401/10/20150- Literature survey on toxicology of ammunition-related compounds and combustion products thereof, identification of data/knowledge gaps; - Recommendations on how to fill the data/knowledge gaps, with prioritization; - Monitoring the operational environme
Participation in military operations is accompanied by a variety of health hazards, including those resulting from exposure to toxic chemicals. Military personnel can be exposed to numerous chemicals, but in general three kinds of exposures may be discerned: 1. voluntary exposure to compounds, intended to prevent more serious health problems, e.g. permethrin, DEET, anti-malaria prophylaxis; 2. more or less unavoidable exposure to compounds that are closely associated with military operations, e.g. fuels, exhaust gases, ammunition-related compounds and combustion products thereof; 3. exposure to contaminants in the operational environment, whose presence is often unknown prior to the operation, and/or accidental or intentional release of chemicals, e.g. Toxic Industrial Chemicals, particulate matter, chemical agents Some incidents have occurred with type 1 exposures, but generally these exposures are reasonably well controlled. It is not always possible to anticipate type 3 exposures and thus to take appropriate mitigating measures, so various incidents involving such exposures have been reported. However, type 2 exposures are of most concern. Surprisingly little is known about the toxicology of ammunition-related compounds and the combustion products thereof, probably because focus has mainly been on ballistic properties and explosion safety issues. The awareness that the use of ammunition is accompanied by hazards from exposure to toxic substances is growing. Military personnel may be exposed to ammunition-related toxic substances during manipulations with intact ammunition items (plastics), upon firing ammunition (combustion products) and via a contaminated environment (TNT, depleted uranium). Adequate risk management approaches to prevent adverse health effects on a short and long term are needed. Within this context, it is important to realize that the conditions under which military personnel is exposed during operations and exercises differ from the ‘normal’ occupational health conditions, for instance 24h a day for 3-6 months often in repetitive cycles as opposed to 8h per day for 5 days a week, a working life long, heat, physical and psychological stress, etc. Consequently, these issues need to be addressed in a different way. Elements of a risk management system include monitoring the integral military working environment for toxic substances, evaluation of the risk resulting from exposure to these substances and personal (bio)monitoring. Since it is important that military personnel is and stays ‘fit for service’ this subject is relevant for NATO. The toxicology of ammunition-related compounds and combustion products is still largely a knowledge gap. This gap needs to be filled in order to allow adequate risk management of exposure to such compounds. 
Ammunition-related compounds; Combustion products; Operational conditions; Acute health effects; Long-term health effects; Risk management; ‘Green’ammunition’; Environmental effects
To provide guidance for design of a system for risk management of exposure of military personnel to ammunition-related compounds and combustion products thereof, under operational conditions. 
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MSG-133UU1RSY01/01/201501/12/20151-M&S in support of NATO Operations, opportunities and challenges -Transforming the defence enterprise trough Modelling and Simulation -Interoperability and standardisation in NATO M&S domain -Emerged/Emerging Disruptive M&S technologies -Verification, Val
The NATO Modelling and Simulation Action Plan highlights a requirement for modelling and simulation (M&S) education in NATO. This conference will provide attendees a forum to advance M&S in the Alliance. The combination of M&S users and developers concentrated in this one forum will not only educate attendees, but also provide fresh ideas for the furtherance and effective use of M&S in NATO.
Conference;Modelling;Simulation;Education;Training
To provide a forum to identify and gain input on and resolution of issues associated with the implementation of the NATO M&S Master Plan, provide overviews of current NATO M&S activities pertaining to both the development and effective employment of M&S, to highlight M&S impact assessments and lessons-learned
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MSG-126UU2RSY01/01/201401/12/20141-M&S in support of NATO Operations, opportunities and challenges -Interoperability and standardisation in NATO M&S domain -Security in collective misssion training -Transforming the defence enterprise trough Modelling and Simulation
The NATO Modelling and Simulation Action Plan highlights a requirement for modelling and simulation (M&S) education in NATO. This conference will provide attendees a forum to advance M&S in the Alliance. The combination of M&S users and developers concentrated in this one forum will not only educate attendees, but also provide fresh ideas for the furtherance and effective use of M&S in NATO.
Conference;Modelling;Simulation;Education;Training
To provide a forum to identify and gain input on and resolution of issues associated with NATO M&S Policy and the NMSG Action Plan, provide overviews of current NATO M&S activities pertaining to both the development and effective employment of M&S, to highlight M&S impact assessments and lessons-learned
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SAS-112UU0RTG01/01/201501/01/20181a. What is the definition of PPP that fits NATO needs best? b. What forms of PPPs are theoretically possible and relevant for the defence/military sector? c. What is the PPPs experience of selected countries in the defence/military sector? d. Is this expe
With the last financial crisis, defence budgets have been experiencing significant reductions. As a result, it has been necessary to find ways to optimize and maximize resources. Following the NATOs concept of Smart Defence that that encourages Allies to increase cooperation, it is expected that in the future there will be a robust increase of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). PPP can be generally defined as collaborative arrangements between the government and one or more private parties and have proved to be very useful, mainly to the public sector as means to reduce costs, get access to better products, services, and technologies. In a PPP, there is mutual leveraging of each partners strengths, and the resulting synergy coupled with close cooperation allows all parties to effectively achieve common goals 1 . Put in another way, PPP may be defined as a cooperative venture between the public and private sectors, built on the expertise of each partner, that best meets clearly defined public needs through the appropriate allocation of resources, risks and rewards. It can occur in the form of privatization, outsourcing, intellectual property/research, financial arrangements, just to cite the most obvious. As reported in Use of Public-Private Partnerships to Meet Future Army Needs, PPPs can: -- boost its assets, reduce capital investments, reduce costs, or reduce expenditures in infrastructure, intellectual property, or financial arrangements -- add to the value of its property and other assets -- create new capabilities and or assets; -- influence technology to get equipment better suited for military needs, possibly at a lower cost -- improve readiness and posture -- result in additional revenue to finance projects of the Armed Forces interests Despite of the increasing common general understanding of the term PPP, their forms differ from country to country, subject to national laws and defence industrial policies.
Private-Public Partnership (PPP); Defence Budget; Legal Framework
To perform a comparative, qualitative study that may be a basis for establishing a framework defining the nature and utility of PPPs for adoption at the NATO level.
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HFM-242UU2RTG01/01/201401/01/20171- Identify medical and paramedical training curricula elements that currently utilize live tissue models; - Create a current list of research and technology products that have potential for replacing LTT; - Draft evaluation and standards criteria for tech
Training NATO medical personnel for their roles in tactical operations has traditionally included combat casualty scenarios using live animal models of injury. This training modality is often called “live tissue training” (LTT). The use of animals for LTT has come under significant scrutiny in many NATO nations to the point where the use of animals in military medical training will have to be severely curtailed if not completely eliminated. The only “alternatives” to live tissue training models of injury will be those provided by technology -- simulations and simulators. In an initial NATO HFM effort (HFM-224), learning models and technology modalities for Special Forces medic training were examined in a Research Workshop forum. Of the several outcomes of HFM-224 was a key insight that simulation and simulator technology will have to continue to advance before the technology can fully replace LTT for some scenarios. Additionally, technical criteria and standards for adoption of simulation technology will have to be developed and adopted in order to directly link technology advances to curriculum elements in pre-hospital trauma and life support training.
Medical; Simulation; Simulators; Medics; Training; Validation; Design; Animal models; Live Tissue Training; LTT
To monitor simulation and simulator technology that can serve as a replacement for LTT in NATO medical training; - Leverage the output of HFM-215 as it applies to LTT alternatives; - To identify requirements for technology to replace LTT; - To annually identify and report to relevant COMEDS committees relevant simulation technology emerging from the commercial sector and from research in the NATO nations centered on replacing LTT; - Provide subject matter expert advice on criteria for evaluation and adoption of technology; and, - Advise COMEDS committees on technology standards relevant to insertion of technology into training venues. 
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MSG-136UU1RTG01/09/201401/09/20171The following topics will be covered by this activity: 1. M&S Domain Services (depending on the selected services) and Service Landscape 2. Organizational M&S Services Perspective Additionally, the task group will • Collaborate with standards bodies and •
NATO and the nations regularly use distributed simulation environments for various purposes (e.g., training, mission rehearsal, or decision support in acquisition processes). Achieving interoperability between participating systems and ensuring credibility of results require still today enormous efforts with regards to time, personnel, and budget. This is a result of current standards which focus mainly on technical, syntactic and – to a limited degree – on semantic interoperability. Missing are simulation standards, agreements, and reference architectures that focus on higher levels of interoperability and simulation credibility.
M&S as a Service;Simulation Interoperability;Credibility;M&S Domain Services;Distributed Simulation;Simulation Environments;Simulation Architecture;Service Oriented Architecture 
To investigate, propose and evaluate standards, agreements, architectures, implementations, and cost-benefit analysis of Modelling and Simulation (M&S) as a Service (MSaaS) approaches. Specifically, with regards to: 1. Evaluating the use of (M&S domain) services to improve simulation interoperability and credibility. 2. Analyzing the organizational M&S services perspective to establish a sustainable and efficient management of M&S services in NATO. Specific M&S domain services for detailed investigation are selected by the task group and may include (but are not limited to): • Enabling rapid initialization of simulation systems with correlated synthetic environment data by using a Synthetic Environment Service (SES). • Reducing development time significantly by scenario management services (including library of typical scenarios that may be used with minimum efforts).
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HFM-216UU2RTG01/09/201101/09/20141• Review and assess research and technologicals being conducted throughout the Alliance, that address the goals and objectives of HFM-111. • Conduct an inventory of synthetic M&S environments to better understand opportunities for collaborative rearch and
New or modified military organizations, processes, and sytems must constantly respond in terms of human capital availability, hardware/softrware changes, and with training that provides the performance need for mission success. In this context, emerging operational needs require commanders responsible for operational readiness to conceptualize designs for new configurations of functions and capabilities. To accomplish this with physical simulations and prototypes is expensive and provides little flexibility. To meet these new and modified capabilities one must also determine the impact of constantly changing technologies and the context of changing operational scenarios inherent in the alliance’s multiple needs. All of this must be done prior to actual field or operational evaluation during training and field exercises. This approach will subsequently reduce the costs of developing training systems and related experimentation, while providing early data on operational performance capabilities. This combined live, virtual, and constructive (L,V,C) approach along with the inclusion of real system capabilities makes traditional approaches of build then test and modify and then test again, less adequate and certainly more expensive. While existing approaches using protyping have their value, the cost of “doing and then re-doing” requires a less cost intensive approach that also allows one to anticipate the “return on investment” while the budget is still being formulated. This approach should start from the operational side, taking the practical limitations of operational scenarios, commanders needs and intents, and identify metrics based on user’s needs so that the sponsors and users understand how the results will pay off in operational terms. The research challenge is now to identify those assessment metrics and associated techniques that can be applied naturally fitting practical commanders themselves and generate strong, operational and acquisition relevant results.
Virtual Environment; Synthetic Environment; Assessment; Testbed; LVC
To identify the many opportunities for the use of synthetic test-beds and how they will provide the most cost-effectiveness balanced assessment techniques for the development, acquisition, and training communities. Headquarters and commanders can use to make well-grounded conclusions one the effectiveness of the command and control processes under consideration. The aim of this RTG is to compile data in a practical, usable form of “what works” as well as to design a What Works Guide for system and training readiness assessment’. To accomplish this objective this RTG will: • Identify the many opportunities for the use of synthetic testbeds and how they will provide the most cost effective balanced assessment techniques for the development, acquisition, and training communities, • Identify associated requirements that will guide the technical solution to meet this objective, and • Share and learn lessons from international partners relating to the design, implementation and testing of SEs.
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AVT-225NU2RTG01/01/201431/12/201611. Scope of synthetic fuels considered includes FT-SPK, HVO, HEFA-SPK and others. 2. Impact of blending synthetic components on fuel specifications and properties (e.g. calorific value, density, cetane number, etc.) will be considered for ground diesel (F
Working closely with the Petroleum Committee, this Technical Group will build upon previous “fuel”-related activities of the NATO RTO such as AVT-ET-076 (2006), AVT-159 (2008-2011), and most recently AVT-ET-128 (2012) to evaluate the opportunities and threats posed by emerging synthetic fuel blends on NATO vehicles and systems (air, land, and naval).
Alternative Fuels; Synthetic Fuels; Conventional Fuels; Gas Turbines; Reciprocating and Rotary IC Engines; Logistics
To identify and prioritize the opportunities and threats for vehicles (air, land, and naval), and their equipment associated with the introduction of synthetic fuels and their blends. A risk-matrix methodology will be used to rank their impact on vehicle operation and mission, as well as on hardware and maintenance characteristics.
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AVT-243NU2RSM01/12/201301/12/20150The topics to be covered are: 1. Next Generation Greener materials and their management – reports on activities and results. 2. Manufacturing and Life Cycle Analysis 3. Toxicity and Disposal – REACH, ITAR and similar constraints 4. Compliance with Perform
Significant work has been carried out in NATO on the methods for Disposal of Munitions (AVT115, AVT 177); the development of Greener Munitions (AVT179) and studies of munition land contamination (AVT197). One outcome of AVT 179 was to propose a Workshop or Specialist Meeting to discuss the results of AVT179. The purpose of such a Specialist Meeting is to review the direction and need for a future generation of greener munitions together with an assessment of the longer term environmental management tools and improvements becoming available. This will provide NATO members with a state of the art assessment of the position and an updated protocol for munitions environmental management, which will include next generation materials, to minimise the impact of legislation such as REACH.
Munitions; Environmental; Green Munitions; Demilitarisation; Explosives; Propellants; Pyrotechnics; 
To further assess the outcome of previous AVT studies and the world-wide state of the art to determine where work is required to provide tools and protocols for the assessment, management and disposal of next generation munitions containing greener, less sensitive materials.
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SCI-ET-005NU2ET01/01/201301/12/20130The major topics of the activity are: 1. To understand what types of maritime activity are potentially hazardous. 2. To analyze what physical and behavioural properties or characteristic features separate hazardous from less and non hazardous ones and wha
As one of the four Global Commons1, the oceans and their shores play a pivotal role for the welfare of nations in our global society. They are paths of trade and source of food, repository of raw materials as well as a source of energy. But the maritime domain becomes more and more vulnerable. Legal trade is threatened by piracy, trade paths are misused for human trafficking and weapons smuggling. The rich offer of food can be overexploited by illegal fishery or destroyed by water pollution. Oil platforms and wind farms may become easy targets of terroristic attacks. - In order to secure the benefits of the maritime domain it is a crucial precondition to detect potentially hazardous activity as early as possible in order to initiate countermeasures in a timely manner. Therefore surveillance should not merely focus on the actual areas to protect. Surveillance should pay more attention on locations where a potentially hazardous activity starts and track the activity until there is sufficient situational awareness and strong evidence available for appropriate action or even for preemptive action. Origins of emerging threats can be manifold. And by the nature of the maritime domain as a global common it is obvious that the problem to track a potentially hazardous activity from the very beginning can hardly be solved by one nation alone. On a water surface of roughly 360 Million km2 ships cruise rather freely. It is therefore a major challenge to monitor this huge realm adequately. The radio-based ship identification system AIS allows an excellent surveillance coverage. But firstly not all vessels are obliged to use AIS, and secondly AIS can be deliberately turned off or signals may be spoofed. Furthermore AIS is blind for submersibles, a well known military and an emerging non-military threat. So it is evident that we have to use a wide variety of sensors to detect, track, and classify ships, boats and even submarines with respect to their hazardousness. Sensor systems have different properties not only in terms of their spectral sensitivity and false alarm rates but also in terms of coverage area, observation distance and time, active vs. passive etc. Each sensor class is optimal to determine specific properties of the objects of interest with respect to detection, tracking and classification or even identification. The solution to paint the sky black with sensors in order to be prepared for all circumstances at each square mile of the oceans for every minute would lead to a squandering of monitoring resources. For this reason efficient and sound use of sensor resources is paramount for achieving maritime situational awareness. What kind of sensor (or more general: what information resource) gives us the best information in a certain phase of activity tracking? When, where and how should we ideally focus next? Who is the owner of sensing assets and what line of communication has to be established to task his sensors and to obtain the right information in the right format and the right time? How should the various surveillance assets become dynamically orchestrated to achieve better results with limited resources. How can a comprehensive approach - for example by an integrated government, commercial and military effort - assure maritime situational awareness as one crucial precondition to sustaining access to the Maritime Commons, as addressed at the ACT Workshop NATO in the Maritime Commons as a determining reason for NATO.
Sensor management; Sensor selection; Sensor cross cueing; Intelligence; Surveillance; and Reconnaissance (ISR); Maritime situational awareness; AIS; Interoperability
To explore the challenge of task driven sensor resource management for maritime situational awareness in detail with respect to hazardous maritime activities, their directly and indirectly observable properties and the sensor systems able to perform the observation task. To recommend a cross-nations system-of-systems sensor management decision aid including standards for sensor-to-sensor cooperation and sensor cross cueing for effective and efficient orchestration of sensor resources. And to identify existing sensor gaps for future research and development efforts. To reach this objective, current methods for sensor management (e. g. in the MAJIIC3 project) and accompanying best practices will be studied, and existing or currently discussed approaches for sensor resource management in other domains will be examined. The transferability to application areas other than the maritime domain is explicitly supported by the objectives of this activity.
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SCI-243NS2RTG01/01/201231/12/20140The major technical topics of the activity are: 1. Understand and map IED Networks related to finance, procurement, recruiting and training, manufacturing and distribution of IEDs; 2. Creation of an inventory of current ways and means to attack the IED Ne
During the last decade, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have been responsible for thousands of combat deaths/casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan. Much effort is put in developing new techniques to defeat IEDs, such as jamming or new vehicle designs, which have proven to be (temporarily) successful. Also, Preparing the Force has led to improved performance of the military in dealing with the continuous IED threat. However, at the same time it has been shown that insurgents adapt quickly to these countermeasures, and more sophisticated IEDs are now used in Iraq and Afghanistan. In the NATO approach to countering the threat of Improvised Explosive Devices, as laid down in the Allied Joint Doctrine for C-IED (AJP-3.15), the effort to understand the IED system and to disrupt it now has a prominent place. This proactive approach, under the phrase Attack the Network (AtN), has the goal of making it difficult for the adversary to create and emplace IEDs. Attacking the Network goes beyond physically (military) attacking the IED networks, it also seeks ways to separate an adversary from the population or remove the cause for adversaries to use violence. This approach, if successful, may be more efficient than trying to detect and neutralize every individual emplaced IED and will drive a wedge between the IED networks and the population. Attacking the IED networks has many different aspects, since the nodes in the network including the financer, the IED manufacturer, the scout, the transporter, etc., are connected in very different ways for instance by the flow of money, exchange of technical information, or intelligence on tactics, techniques and procedures of NATO forces. In this study the goal is to explore enhanced and/or new ways and means for attacking the IED network, using current methods for AtN and accompanying best practices as a starting point. This activity supports the following NATO LTCR item H2: C-IED. It will also support the NATO DAT item: C-IED.
Countering IEDs; Attack the IED network; Intelligence; influencing strategic and operational environment; Understand; Prevent; Pursue
To explore and recommend enhanced and/or new ways and means for attacking the IED network. To reach this objective, current methods for AtN and accompanying best practices will be studied and approaches for AtN currently under consideration/development will be examined. 
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AVT-191NU2RTG01/01/201101/12/20140Problems and methods investigated will be focused on those dominated by variational uncertainties. This type of uncertainty involves known variations (i.e., the associated distribution functions are known). The computational procedure requires sampling th
Aerospace systems have increased in complexity to the point where traditional development processes based upon the experimentally-based paradigm of test-fix-test is no longer affordable. As a result, development processes are shifting to a simulation-based paradigm of model-test-model. A key to implementing this new paradigm is the use of sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification techniques in conjunction with multi-resolution, physics-based modeling and simulation. The development of high performance aerospace systems will continue to be of interest to NATO for two reasons: First, the emphasis of current military concept operations require the ability to position and maintain intelligence assets at will. Second, the concept of operations also requires the ability to engage key targets with a high degree of precision, especially, in urban settings. Development of systems to provide these capabilities is complex and costly. Advanced modeling and simulation methods coupled with advanced sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification methods must be introduced into system design and development processes to reduce cost, schedule, and development risk of these systems. The AVT-147 Symposium on “Computational Uncertainty in Military Vehicle Design” conducted in Athens, Greece in December of 2007 provides a baseline for current sensitivity analysis and quantitative uncertainty methods. However, the methods presented were demonstrated on simple problems. In order to evaluate the utility and maturity of these methods, it will be necessary to apply them to a set of realistic configuration problems. A number of ongoing AVT activities, such as AVT-113, AVT-161 and AVT-183, may provide relevant problem sets and associated experimental data. This Task Group builds up on the work of AVT-ET-103.
Sensitivity Analysis; Uncertainty Quantification; Conceptual Design; Verification; Validation
To evaluate the maturity and suitability of various sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification methods to realistic problems of interest to NATO, to make recommendations for proper use, and to identify areas requiring further development.
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IMC-003UU2RWS24/04/200625/04/20080Various - TBD
At the Fall 2005 IMC Meeting tt was decided to set up a Publications Workshop (timeframe April 06, location RTA Paris) in order to elicit best practices and as such ensure that RTO publishing policies were in line with such practices. This is in follow up to the recent Publishing Survey carried out by the RTA. To this end, a sub-committee has been set up consisting of the following IMC members: Eve-Marie Beaudoin, Paul Ryan, Chrissie McCracken, Jette Schmidt, Phil Reed The sub-committee will decide upon the key topics that should be discussed and identify key experts in the various publishing arenas, for example standards organisations (eg the USA National Information Standards Organisation who have recently performed a study pertaining to best practices in Technical Report writing), government science and academia and scientific publishers. It was decided that the RTA (Jette, Phil) look for suitable RTO Authors whilst the IMC members investigate the various experts that could participate. 
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To elicit best publishing practices to ensure that RTO publishing policies were in line with such practices.
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SCI-244NU2AG01/01/201201/12/20140Standards, ground and flight tests necessary to determine aircraft/stores compatibility, integration and separation as well as resultant stores configurations and captive carriage envelopes and air vehicle performance effects.
There is no established NATO governance on specific testing approaches or procedures used to assess the compatibility, separation, and integration of these stores on all aircraft. Some NATO nations have developed such procedures. For example, US Military requirements for stores and weapon integration with host aircraft are largely contained in MIL-HDBK-244 and MIL-HDBK-1763. An AGARDograph capturing contemporary standard approaches to ground and flight testing of stores on both fixed and rotary wing aircraft, including carriage, separation, systems integration, and full compatibility would benefit multiple countries by establishing a common understanding of this complex subject. Common approaches would enhance interoperability and coordinated exercises in addition to promote cross-training and transfer of stores technology amongst NATO and partner nations.
Weapons; Stores; flight testing; separation; ejection racks; bombs; missiles; compatibility
To document current techniques and certification criteria across NATO for determining aircraft stores compatibility.
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SET-217NC0RTG01/01/201501/12/20170Topics to be investigated by the group during its lifetime include the survey of existing digital image fusion technologies and algorithms, the survey of suitable image quality metrics, data collections for observer experiments, performance assessment and
The assessment and modeling of performance gains using image fusion of different night vision technologies, like thermal (TI) and low light imagers (LLI) is an open problem that so far has resisted all attempts to arrive at a general procedure. This is in large part caused by the fact that the benefit of a fusion algorithm is strongly dependent on the composition of the actual scenery and the specific military tasks, a complication it shares with other advanced image and signal processing algorithms. Fused LLI and TI imaging systems are currently being fielded by some of the NATO armed forces. Thus, a reliable assessment and performance prediction procedure is needed and will prove invaluable both for future procurement processes and the prediction of field performance. 
Low Light Imaging; Thermal Imager; Image Fusion; Performance Assessment; Modeling; Digital Night Vision 
To develop procedures for performance assessment and modeling of digital fused night vision equipment.
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SET-155NS2RTG01/04/200901/12/20141The topics evolve around radar detection, location, identification and classification of slightly moving target of interest in urban environments. Specifically: - Additional SET topic areas for “Sensing Through Walls” - Improving the Detection of Targets
The alliance and its corresponding members have been experiencing an increase in frequency the number of operations that take place in urban environments as well as the number of counter-terrorist actions. The environment in which these operations take place is varied and will require standoff capability in order to maintain safety during hostile or dangerous conditions. As a result, there has been a desire to covertly collect situation awareness of personnel behind opaque barriers, within structures and amongst debris.
High resolution imaging; Movement detection; Feature extraction; Electromagnetic wave Propagation Through Wall; Personnel Detection; Active Sensors; Passive Sensors; Radar 
To develop novel approaches and evaluate emerging techniques for improved through wall performance in the following areas as identified by SET-100: - Detection of animate & inanimate targets - Object classification, feature extraction and signature analysis These objectives will be accomplished through further investigations, joint experimentation/trials and data sharing for: - Improve the detection for targets of interest - Reduce overall false alarms through processing and hardware - Use novel techniques as a method to improve system performance - Provide high resolution 3 D imaging of objects and humans behind walls - Detect and identify motion and breathing behind different types of walls - Devise potential solutions to resolve wall ambiguities - Perform joint experimentation and data exchange 
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AVT-192UU2AG01/01/201101/12/20141Aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic methods as well as testing and modeling developments during the period of 1970 to 2010.
The AGARD Manual on Aeroelasticity was developed over several decades of the 1950’s and 1960’s and was last revised in 1971. It provided detailed information and descriptions for various aeroelastic methods in use at that time and was the standard by which all aeroelastic analyses were conducted. With the advent of high speed computing capabilities in the 1960’s-1970’s, the earlier simplified methods described in the AGARD Manual were gradually replaced by the newly evolving aeroelastic methods based on lifting surface models (panel methods) for aerodynamics and finite element models (FEM) for structures. Although the simple methods were still applicable to high aspect ratio wings, tails, etc., the low aspect ratio wings for high speed and supersonic aircraft needed the more advanced methods to achieve acceptable accuracy. During the 1970’s, 1980’s and 1990’s, the aerodynamic panel and FEM based aeroelastic methods fully matured to the point that they have become the standard and that complete aircraft with control surfaces can now be analyzed with high confidence. In addition, with the inception of fly-by-wire in the 1970’s the field of aeroelasticity was expanded to include active controls which became the new field of aeroservoelasticity. In order to bring the AGARD Manual on Aeroelasticity back into relevance, it needs to be upgraded with a new manual to reflect the advances made between 1970 and 2010 on aerodynamic and FEM methods, test techniques, data acquisition capabilities and model design fabrication processes. The new manual format should be similar to the original and stand as a companion to that legacy documentation. Also, the new manual should have a part that summarizes ongoing advanced aeroelastic methods development as a look into the future of aeroelasticity. This activity is proposed by AVT-ET-104. 
Aeroelasticity; Aeroservoelasticity; Computational Aeroelasticity; Fluid-Structure Interactions; Flutter; Limit Cycle Oscillations; Buffet
To develop a sequel to the legacy AGARD Manual on Aeroelasticity that covers the improvements and new tools that have evolved during the period of 1970 to 2010; and that have become current industry standards for aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic analyses. Resources for this effort will include related AGARDographs written during this period.
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AVT-183NU2RTG01/01/201001/12/20140Applicability and use of computational fluid dynamics for prediction of separated flow aerodynamic/hydrodynamic effects such as performance degradation, static stability reversals, etc. for steady or unsteady flows, as they pertain to air and sea vehicles
The ability to accurately predict both static and dynamic stability of sea and air vehicles using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods could revolutionize the vehicle design process for NATO air and sea vehicles. A validated capability would significantly reduce the number of ground tests required to verify a concept and, in general, could eliminate costly vehicle ‘repair’ campaigns required to fix performance anomalies that were not adequately predicted prior to full-scale vehicle development. As a result, significant reductions in acquisition cost, schedule, and risk could be realized. For both air and maritime vehicles, CFD has found its way into the design process especially for nominal cruise performance where flows are generally characterized by attached steady flows (aircraft) or flat sea state (ships). Unfortunately military vehicles routinely operate well outside of these steady boundary conditions. In fact, a significant portion of the vehicle preliminary design effort and cost is directed to those areas outside of the ‘steady, attached flow or steady sea state’ regime to ensure the vehicle operates as designed and can be qualified at the edges of the operating envelope. Both aircraft and maritime vehicles must be qualified at many transient states that contain unsteady, highly separated flows over the vehicle. State-of-the-art CFD methods are known not to be particularly robust in these regions, and their ability to predict onset and development of these problematic separated flow regimes is not well established. However, significant progress is being made with both steady and unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS and URANS) computational methods as documented in the recent NATO AVT-123 Symposium on “Flow Induced Unsteady Loads and the Impact on Military Applications”. More recently, AVT-161 has formed and is beginning an ‘Assessment of Stability and Control Prediction Methods for NATO Air and Sea Vehicles’. Work already carried out for AVT-161 has confirmed that there are fundamental issues with current CFD approaches that make the reliable prediction of basic phenomena such as the onset and progression of separated flows especially for rounded/smooth surfaces very difficult, even at static conditions. As a result, this new task group is proposed in order to carry out an assessment of the state of the art for the prediction of smooth-surface separation onset and progression. As part of this work, a limited amount of uncertainty analysis will also be carried out.
Separated Flow; CFD; Predictive Capability; Unsteady Flows; Flow Separation Onset and Progression; Vehicle Performance
To conduct a new series of wind-tunnel experiments to gather a unique and comprehensive experimental aerodynamic data set for realistic configurations, including: surface flow topology; pressures; off-surface velocities; turbulence quantities etc. To use these data to assess, diagnose and improve the current state-of-the-art in CFD methods for predicting the onset and progression of flow separation, and associated unsteady phenomena.
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IST-102UU2RTG01/01/201231/12/20161The project should consist of: (1) Specification of one or more meeting domains, and language pairs. (2) Assessment of systems and component technology can be performed. The results should be summarized in: (3) A standard or recommendation document. Final
Language is a major obstacle to the communication among multinational personnel. Personnel must communicate in addition to their own language, in an official NATO language. For multi-national meetings, such as IST Panel meetings, this may cause a reduced efficiency. By integrating machine translation with other related communications technologies, such as speech recognition and synthesis, speaker and language identification, NATO personnel can work successfully in meetings. Standardized assessment methods using real meeting data and specifications for both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and for development of new technology are required.
Military environments; speech synthesis; speech communication; speech recognition; assessment; training; electronic warfare; natural language processing; standardization; language identification;machine translation; speaker identification.
To address these subjects a representative, multilingual, database of dialogues (both text and speech) is required. A relevant option is to collect these dialogues during NATO meetings, such as IST Panel meetings. One or more prototype systems would be developed and evaluated collaboratively within the Research Task Group. The prototypes could be standalone on a laptop or desktop computer or network based using multiple computers on a wide-area network. All specified applications could be assessed with such a methodology.
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MSG-137UU1RWS01/10/201401/12/20151• the background and affordances of simulations, digital games, and social networking; • the cognitive implications of these technologies; • specific challenges with using these tools for education and training, as well as strategies for overcoming these
The commercial sector is developing many of the key technologies and applications that have the potential for cost-effective adaptation for defence exploitation and use in modelling and simulation (M&S) applications such as defence planning, training, operations and capabilities development. The exploitation of commercial technologies and appropriate use of open standards can provide efficiencies and increased benefits for defence applications. There is a need to identify those technologies having the greatest near term potential and understand the future trends and developments in those technologies that have potential to meet future defence requirements. It is expected that all participants will develop a shared understanding of the issues and opportunities. 
Virtual worlds;Training;Modelling;Simulation;Immersion;Social;Cultural;Social media
Through demonstration, experimentation, discussion and debate, attendees will acquire knowledge and experience in the possible topic areas. Technical and application briefings and demonstrations on selected commercial technology areas will help the attendees better understand the issues so that they may more properly aid in the development of the strategy for the NATO and the Nations to exploit these technologies. It is expected that all participants will develop a shared understanding of the issues and opportunities. Meeting proceedings will be produced including recommendations for NATO and the Nations.
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AVT-205NU2RTG01/01/201201/12/20140The Task Group will focus on one or more of the following topics: • Non-equilibrium hypersonic shock-wave laminar boundary layer interactions including the effects of surface catalysis and ablation • Turbulent heating generated by high-Reynolds number tur
One of the primary technological challenges to the development of hypersonic capabilities is the management of the substantial thermal loads associated with the aerothermodynamic environment. Conservative approaches to thermal protection systems increase vehicle weight at the expense of performance, while aggressive, low-weight designs increase the potential risk for structural failure. At the heart of this problem lies the current inability to accurately predict the complex fluid dynamic, thermodynamic and chemical phenomena which dominate the development of thermal loads on hypersonic systems. Two examples of such critical phenomena include shock wave/boundary layer interactions and surface heating due to turbulent flow over both localized disturbances and distributed arbitrary roughness. Shock wave/ boundary layer interactions (denoted "shock interactions") are commonplace in hypersonic aerodynamics. They occur in the vicinity of deflected control surfaces, fuselage-wing junctures, corner flows in inlets and many other locations. Shock interactions can cause boundary layer separation with concommitant high heat transfer at reattachment which has a significant impact on the design of thermal protection systems. Accurate prediction of shock interactions is therefore essential for optimal design of hypersonic vehicles. Assessment of current predictive capabilities for shock interactions was a major focus of the activities of RTO AVT-136 during 2005-2009. As part of the effort, a set of two test configurations (i.e., a 25 deg - 55 deg cone and a circular cylinder) were computed by an international team of CFD experts from the US and Europe. The results indicate significant success in modeling shock interactions for non-equilibrium flows; however, results for one of the cases was indeed surprising (i.e., all six computations of one double-cone configuration indicated highly unsteady flow in direct contrast to the experiment which indicated steady flow). In addition, uncertainties regarding the proper surface boundary condition in the presence of catalytic surface conditions led to a substantial variation in predicted surface heat transfer. The AVT-136 effort also intended to assess the capability of current computational methods to predict the actual shock interactions characterized in recent flight research experiments such as HIFiRE 1. Unfortunately the HIFiRE 1 flight data was not available in time for it to be utilized by AVT-136. As a result of both the outstanding technical questions associated with the simulation of nonequilibrium interactions and the now realistic opportunity to utilize flight data from HIFiRE 1, the AVT-136 study recommended additional investigations of hypersonic shock interactions to further validate CFD model effectiveness by comparison with additional experimental data. While seemingly benign, the flow of a turbulent boundary layer over a localized perturbation or arbitrary distributed roughness remains a critical challenge to the efficient design of thermal protection systems due to the relatively large levels of uncertainty (on the order of 20%) associated with the prediction of surface heat transfer in these flows and the fact that such flows can compose much of the surface of a system. Factors contributing to the overall lack of progress in this area include a deficit of high-quality experimental data for high-Reynolds number hypersonic boundary layers over well-defined rough surfaces and limited insight into the physical phenomena that define the energy transfer between kinetic and thermal states in such flows. There is currently significant interest from a number of research agencies, including both the Air Force Research Laboratory and NASA, in efforts to characterize hypersonic turbulent flows over rough surfaces and improve the prediction of the resultant surface heat transfer. 
Hypersonic; CFD; shock waves; boundary layers; roughness; heat transfer
This working group will assess the state-of-the-art in the prediction of critical phenomena driving aerothermodynamic loads on hypersonic systems, identify key technical challenges limiting current capabilities, and recommend approaches for the improvement of future capabilities. Specific objectives include the following. • Establish a high-quality database of experimental data through identification of suitable existing data and exploitation of current funded research, including the following: - shock wave/ boundary layer interactions in non-equilibrium hypersonic flow - flight research data for dynamic shock wave/ boundary layer interactions - high-Reynolds number hypersonic boundary layers over discrete and well-defined distributed rough surfaces • Define a matrix of test cases within the experimental database for validation of computational models. • Establish a multi-national team of participants to compute the test cases. • Evaluate the results of the computations to identify modeling strengths and weaknesses. • Assess the utility of the experimental database and identify key objectives for future experiments. 
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SCI-223NS2RTG01/07/201101/07/20140The TG will examine existing and future threats, operational scenarios and planning assumptions and investigate IERs to enable the following networked EW functions: shared situational awareness, threat warning, geo-location, cross-cueing of complimentary
Networked information exchange protocols support functions such as situational awareness, electronic attack, electronic defense, and electronic intelligence. Several STANAGs include Electronic Warfare (EW) information exchange protocols and formats. New or modified STANAGs may be required to fully exploit capabilities of both current and future EW systems. This study will enable fuller exploitation of the enhanced capabilities provided by EW systems. Such capabilities would impact on the areas of Electronic Order of Battle intelligence and Networked EW capabilities. This activity supports the following NATO LTCRs: (i) Information and Integration Services, (ii) ISR Processing, Fusion and Exploitation and (iii) Network Enabled Capability. 
IER (Information Exchange Requirements); EW (Electronic Warfare); SEI (Specific Emitter Identification) 
This TG will study Information Exchange Requirements (IERs), establish capability gaps in the areas described above, and propose potential solutions and ways forward. The TG study will include high fidelity information available from future EW systems. Supporting sub-objectives are to (i) identify current/future NATO networked EW capabilities, (ii) review the relevance of NATO Concepts of Employment/Operations (CONEMP/CONOPS), (iii) assess EW IERs, (iv) summarize the relevance of STANAGs to IERs, (v) identify gaps between IERs and capabilities, (vi) recommend updates to the EW content of STANAGs, CONEMP and CONOPS and (vii) identify national programs that address capability gaps.
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SCI-ET-015NR0ET01/06/201401/12/20150A: Single and multi-vehicle autonomy; standards for autonomy architectures B: Automated perception including machine learning, signal processing, automatic target recognition, and change detection with emphasis on surface and undersea targets and clutter
All NATO nations recognize the growing problem of limitations of platform capacity in warfighting. Embedded computing which enables autonomous behaviors for unmanned systems is an important response to create safer and scalable defense capacities. In regions where communications to unmanned systems are severely limited (undersea domain for example) autonomy is particularly important for sensor signal processing, vehicle situational awareness, and long term mission planning. Machine learning techniques are making important advances which are expected to continue and be available worldwide. Expectation of continuing advances in computing make autonomy a pressing topic to stay ahead of potential opponents. 
Autonomy; autonomous vehicles; machine intelligence; UUV; USV; standards; embedded computing
This Technical Activity will create a framework to facilitate research collaboration, data/software sharing, and joint at-sea experimentation in the subject of autonomy, machine intelligence, and unmanned systems.
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SAS-105UU1RSY01/11/201401/11/20141• Future Info Ops Force Structure • Info Ops Analysis and Assessment • Cyber-PSYOPS Capability • Info Ops Integration into Operational Planning • Influence Targeting and Synchronization • Info Ops Case Studies The symposium will be divided into a number o
The contemporary operating environment (COE) has been characterized by the convergence of two broad societal trends. The first trend is the increased appearance of, and involvement by, non-state actors in violent conflict, whether as a proxy for a state or as the primary or principle adversary. The second trend is the exploitation of the cyber-domain, specifically – but not limited to – social media (Web 2.0), by non-state actors to shape and manage the narrative and conduct influence operations. Although Western militaries have achieved, on the whole, technical overmatch in the areas of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) and precision munitions, as well as the employment of unmanned aircraft in denied areas, they have been particularly slow to embrace and exploit social media. The result has been the emergence of an asymmetric advantage on part of non-state actors, in particular in the realm of offensive cyber-influence operations. Moreover, it can be argued that, although still early-on, we have entered a new phase in the evolution of warfare – one which is characterized by the supremacy of information and influence over traditional kinetic operations. 
Information Operations; Influence Activities; Cyber Operation´; Social Media Exploitation; Psychological Operations; Non-Kinetic Targeting; Effects Assessment
This TAP proposes a SAS Symposium to identify and examine issues related to the exploitation of the cyber-domain and the conduct of offensive cyber-influence by non-state actors, as well as to identify and discuss capability gaps and requirements to conduct offensive, defensive, and exploitation operations in cyber-space, with a particular focus on the social media environment. Specific objectives include: 1. Enhanced understanding of the current state of development of Information Operations (Info Ops) doctrine in partner nations, and challenges in effective application; 2. Development of a theoretical framework for Info Ops to help define a future research agenda; 3. Development of strategies on how influence capabilities of military and civilian organizations could be better harmonised to achieve desired strategic effects and outcomes; 4. Identification of what capabilities are required for effective Info Ops across the dimensions Information (systems), Physical, and Cognitive Dimensions; and, 5. Exploration of the underlying concepts for the future development and evolution of joint Info Ops doctrine. 
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HFM-239UU2RSY01/04/201301/01/201511. Current research into mechanisms of action of infectious diseases; 2. Current RDT&E into prophylaxis against Biological agents; 3. Current research and development on diagnostic assays for Biological agents; 4. Current RDT&E into therapeutics against B
The availability of medical countermeasures against biological agents (B-agents) or related highly contagious infectious diseases are a key issue in medical readiness and countering that threat. Prophylaxis in the form of vaccination, when available, is clearly preferable but may be impracticable for a broad spectrum of B-agents. Immunization presumes the availability of an approved vaccine that can be administered to healthy individuals in anticipation of a known biological threat; with the appropriate number of doses required for the vaccination regimen. The incubation time required for onset of disease following a B-agent exposure (if detected in a timely manner) offers the possibility for therapeutic intervention. Many therapeutic countermeasures have not been specifically tested and/or approved for use following B-agent exposure. Likewise, in the case of new or emerging diseases (e.g. SARS, avian influenza, etc.), the effectiveness of these countermeasures is likely unknown. A broad study of the mechanisms of B-agent related infectious disease, prophylaxis and therapy will provide a concise overview of the present state-of-the-art in medical countermeasures against B-agents, with a focus on their use in CBRN defense. In addition to the broad underlying discussion of medical countermeasures (MCM) to emerging and evolving infectious diseases in general, HFM-RTG-186 identified fifteen B-agents of primary interest. Specifically, these were (1) variola major (smallpox), (2) Bacillus anthracis (including MDR) (anthrax), (3) Yersinia pestis (plague), anthrax), (3) Yersinia pestis (plague), (4) Francisella tularensi (tularemia), (5) filovirus Ebola and (6) filovirus Marburg (viral hemorrhagic fevers), (7) Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), (8) alphaviruses (VEE, EEE, WEE) (viral encephalitis), (9) Brucella species (brucellosis), (10) Burkholderia mallei (glanders), (11) Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis), (12) Coxiella burnetii (Q-fever), (13) Staphylococcal enterotoxins, (14) Rickettsia prowazekii (typhus fever), and (15) ricin toxin. The TG’s Final Report will include Chapters for the each of these agents or agent classes including description of pathogenicity, host response and current (approved / published) MCM (prophylaxis and treatment) for each. 
Biological Agents; Infectious Diseases; Medical Countermeasures (MCM); Therapeutic Drugs
This Symposium will enable the exchange of current scientific data and practical issues associated with the state-of-the-art in research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) on Medical Countermeasures against Biological Agents and emerging/evolving infectious diseases of military significance.
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