From AGARD to RTO
The now named
Science and Technology Organization (STO) has a rich history on which you can read here in more detail. There are several sections to be visisted, the foundation of AGARD and a few years later the DRG. Or you can go to explore the history of the different Panels that constituted AGARD and DRG in the past.
Panels were the heart of AGARD. The panels were composed of members from government and semi-government, laboratories and agencies , universities and industry. AGARD originally started in 1952 with 4 Panels (Combustion, Aero-Medicine, Flight Test and Instrumentation, and Wind Tunnel and Model Testing). Von Kármán had a direct personal interest in the Panels - based on his life-long scientific work and his association with the military - and he gave them his guidance. Initially there were less than 100 Panel members. Their number grew rapidly to 200 in 1960 and with the expansion to 9 Panels in 1970, there were more than 500 Panel members in the 1990s. After a restructuring in 1994 the number of Panels was reduced to 7, plus a Technical Information Committee (TIC).
Panel members were appointed by their respective National Delegates, normally for a term of 3 years. The detailed areas of interest of each Panel varied fairly rapidly as the field of aerospace science and technology expanded and as interactions between specialist areas became more or less relevant. In very general terms, the mission of each Panel was to fulfil the AGARD mission within its own area of scientific and technical interest and competence.
Each Panel defined a program of meetings and publications in its own speciality, within the general constraints of AGARD policy as determined by the Board. Panel members were responsible for enlisting the necessary support and participation from their own countries. Most Panels held two major meetings each year, which rotated among the NATO Member-Nations. The printing and publication of Panel written works (at that time around 70-90 publications a year) was organised by AGARD Headquarters. Occasionally publications were judged to be of such general interest, that up to 5000 copies were printed.
The AGARD Panels
The DRG Panels
There were 11 DRG Panels composed of a total of nearly 500 members, who were experts actively engaged in research, development or management in academic institutions, government establishments or industrial enterprises related to the ...
Panel 1 on Long-Term Scientific Studies
Panel 3 on Physics and Electronics
Panel 4 on Optics and Infra-Red
Panel 7 on Operational Research
Panel 8 on Human and Biomedical Sciences
Panel 9 on Electronic Warfare
Panel 10 on Air Defence
Panel 11 on Information Processing Technology
SGE (CCD) on Concealment, Camouflage and Deception
SGE (CET) on Combat Engineering Technology
The NATO Modelling & Simulation Group
Modeling and Simulation Group (MSG), was established in 1999 as a total new group. "NATO has not yet begun to harness the full potential of M&S to improve operations. Uses are rich and diverse, but a common Alliance strategy incorporating interoperability and reuse, a key to cost-effectiveness, does not (yet) exist."
In November 1996, the Conference of National Armaments Directors (CNAD) established a Steering Group on NATO Simulation Policy and Applications with a mandate to craft an Alliance approach to simulation in order to improve Alliance operations (e.g., defence planning, training, exercises, support to operations, research, technology development and armaments acquisition (modernization)) cost-effectively. The CNAD specifically tasked the Steering Group to identify recommended technical standards in order to foster simulation interoperability and reuse, to craft a roadmap for the development of simulations in order to satisfy the most-pressing NATO needs, and to include these results in a comprehensive NATO Modelling & Simulation Master Plan (MSMP). The MSMP would in turn guide the Alliance in the development and use of modelling and simulation (M&S).
The Steering Group accomplished its work with the broad and active participation of senior government policy representatives, the NATO Military Authorities and M&S experts drawn from the NATO member governments and the NATO Industrial Advisory Group. The Master Plan is the result of their endeavours
This NATO M&S Master Plan was endorsed by the Conference of NATO Armament Directors (CNAD) and the Military Committee (MC) in November 1998, and approved by the North Atlantic Council in December 1998. The M&S Master Plan recommended two organisational structures: the NATO Modelling & Simulation Group (as a level 2 body reporting to the RTB) and the establishment of a full-time Modelling & Simulation Co-ordination Office. The MSCO was established in the autumn of 1999 within the SPD Division of the RTA in Paris. The Office is now resourced by two VNCs (one Spain and one UK). One additional on-site French VNC is expected to join the team part-time from 1 April 2000. Additional US VNC remote support was also provided during the reporting period. The MSCO, under the authority of the RTA Director and within guidance provided by the Research and Technology Board (RTB) through the NMSG, have overall responsibility for co-ordinating and developing Alliance M&S to ensure efficient support to NATO operations.
During the interim and start-up phase of 1999, the NMSG/MSCO have formulated Programmes of Work (POW) based upon guidance from the September 1999 RTB Meeting and the RTB M&S November 1999 Sub Group Meeting. The majority of resourcing and funding for these programmes is from National Resources and National Voluntary Contributions with NATO providing minimal funding for reports generated from the programmes.